Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on 11th May 2012



On Tuesday, June 15 2010, Dmitry Medvedev arrived in the city of Severodvinsk and visited the nation’s largest ship-building enterprise Sevmash. The enterprise has finally finished building Russia’s unique fourth-generation submarine, which was named after the city – Severodvinsk. The president took part in the official ceremony to launch the new submarine.


The works on the submarine began in 1993. The project was suspended in 1996 and then resumed in 2000. It usually takes Russia five years to build a submarine. With Severodvinsk, though, the time was much longer – 17 years. Officials of the enterprise assured reporters that the submarine had been outfitted with state-of-the-art equipment despite the long construction process. Severodvinsk will become one of the quietest submarines in the world. The sub will accompany strategic missile carriers and defend Russia’s Arctic deposits. Severodvinsk will have up to 90 crew members.  


If the tests of Severodvinsk are successful, Russia will build six other submarines like that. The tests will begin already this summer.

Yasen class submarine (Project 885), also known as the Severodvinsk class, is a new Russian nuclear multipurpose attack submarine class. The submarine is based on the Akula-class submarine and the Alfa-class submarines and are projected to replace Russia’s older Soviet-era class attack submarines both Akula class and Oscar class.


The submarine’s technology and design is claimed to be state-of-the-art. Though smaller than the older Akula class submarines, the Yasen class will have more firepower per its complement. The submarine’s armament includes 24 cruise missiles, with several types suggested, including the 3M51 Alfa SLCM, the P-800 Oniks SLCM or the RK-55 Granat SLCM. It will also have 8 torpedo tubes as well as mines and anti-ship missiles like the RPK-7.


This class is the first Russian submarines to be equipped with spherical sonar, designated as Irytysh-Amfora. Due to the large size of this spherical array, the torpedo tubes are slanted. The submarine will have a crew of 50, suggesting a high degree of automation in the submarine’s different systems. The newest U.S. attack sub, the Virginia-class submarine, has a crew of 134 in comparison. If true, this might imply that much of the automated equipment could have been developed from the highly automated project 705 Lira, which is considered as the most automated nuclear attack submarine of all times (the entire half of the boat with reactor and propulsion was unmanned and controlled from the control room).


Length: 120 meters.

Width: 12 meters

Speed (underwater): 28-33 knots

Depth of submersion: 380-500 meters

Crew: 85

Arms: 30 torpedoes, 24 Onyx missiles (5,000 km range).





Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on May 11th 2012

Type 093/09III Shang class is the new generation of SSN.


This sub has been under development for more than 10 years but encoutered certain technological bottlenecks in the early 90s particularly in the areas of noise reduction measures. It was reported Russian assistance was sought to resolve those critical issues in the late 90s.

However Type 093 appears to have limited Russian influences such as a double hull design and is longer than Type 091. It features a more reliable and powerful pressurized water reactor (PWR), new bow sonar and three flank sonar arrays (H/SQG-207) on each side of the hull. Image

Its noise level is further reduced by a new asymmetrical seven blade skewed propeller and anechoic tiles. The displacement of Type 093 was estimated to be 6,000 dived. It is expected to be able to fire advanced wire-guided torpedos and launch YJ-82 AshMs.

Its overall combat capability was thought to be comparable to Russian Victor III class in the late 70s, but still representing a significant technological achievement when compared with its predecessor. Image

The inital batch of 2 was built (407 & 408). The first boat was launched between 2000-01 and has been undergoing sea trial since late 2002. It was finally commissioned in late 2006.

A total number of 6-8 093 SSNs were projected. At least one 093 has been deployed to a naval base near Sanya in Hannan Island facing South China Sea. Image

A new design (Type 095/09V) has been under development, suggesting that Shang SSN may not be advanced enough to fully meet PLAN’s requirements. The latest rumor claimed that Type 095 might feature vertically launched SLCMs.




Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on May 11th 2012

The Virginia Class new attack submarine is an advanced stealth multimission nuclear-powered submarine for deep ocean anti-submarine warfare and littoral (shallow water) operations.

Although the Seawolf submarine was developed to provide an eventual replacement for the US Navy Los Angeles Class submarines in combating the Soviet forces, the prohibitive unit cost and changing strategic requirements led to the US Navy defining a smaller new-generation attack submarine.

Viriginia class submarines


The Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, Connecticut, is the lead design authority for the Virginia Class. General Dynamics Electric Boat has built the first of the class – Virginia (SSN 774), and Northrop Grumman Newport News the second – Texas (SSN 775).

“Virginia is fitted with the AN/WLY-1 acoustic countermeasures system being developed by Northrop Grumman.”

The subsequent vessels will be Hawaii (SSN 776), New Hampshire (SSN 778), Missouri (SSN 780), Mississippi (SSN 782) and John Warner (SSN 785) being built by Electric Boat, with North Carolina (SSN 777), New Mexico (779), California (SSN 781), Minnesota (SSN 783) and North Dakota (SSN 784) being built by Newport News.

Virginia was laid down in September 1999, launched in August 2003 and commissioned in October 2004. It underwent a three-year operational evaluation before operational deployment. Texas was launched in April 2005, delivered in June 2006 and commissioned in September 2006. The keel for Hawaii was laid in August 2004; it was launched in June 2006 and commissioned in May 2007.

North Carolina was launched in May 2007, delivered in December 2007 and commissioned in May 2008. New Hampshire was launched in February 2008 and commissioned in October 2008. The keel for New Mexico was laid in April 2008.

It was launched in December 2008 and commissioned in March 2010. Missouri (SSN 780) began construction in December 2004. Her keel was laid in September 2008, launched in November 2009 and commissioned in July 2010. The keel for California (SSN-781) was laid in May 2010.

Construction of SSN 786 began in March 2011 at General Dynamics Electric Boat. The US Navy then decided to build two Virginia class submarines a year. Accordingly, $1.2bn was released to General Dynamics in April 2011, to construct the 14th Virginia-class submarine SSN-787. Construction began in September 2011, the second in that year.

Construction of SSN 788 and SSN 789 is planned to begin in 2012.

Design of NSSN Virginia Class submarines


The engineering teams and design and build teams at Electric Boat in partnership with the Naval Sea Systems Command, NAVSEA, of the US Navy have used extensive CAD/CAE simulation systems to optimise the design of the submarine.

The hull size is length 377ft by beam 34ft and the displacement is 7,300t dived, which is smaller than the more expensive Seawolf attack submarine with displacement 9,137t dived.

The hull structure contains structurally integrated enclosures, which accommodate standard 19in and 24in width equipment for ease of installation, repair and upgrade of the submarine’s systems.

The submarine is fitted with modular isolated deck structures, for example the submarine’s command centre will be installed as one single unit resting on cushioned mounting points. The submarine’s control suite is equipped with computer touch screens.

The submarine’s steering and diving control is via a four-button, two-axis joystick.

The noise level of the Virginia is equal to that of the US Navy Seawolf, SSN 21, with a lower acoustic signature than the Russian Improved Akula Class and fourth-generation attack submarines. To achieve this low acoustic signature, the Virginia incorporates newly designed anechoic coatings, isolated deck structures and a new design of propulsor.

Goodrich is supplying high-frequency sail array acoustic windows and composite sonar domes.

Command system


The command and control systems module (CCSM) has been developed by a team led by Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics & Surveillance Systems – Undersea Systems (NE&SS-US) of Manassas, Virginia. It will integrate all of the vessel’s systems – sensors, countermeasure technology and navigation and weapon control and will be based on open system architecture (OSA) with Q-70 colour common display consoles.

Weapon control is provided by Raytheon with a derivative of the CCS mk2 combat system, the AN/BYG-1 combat control system, which is also being fitted to the Australian Collins Class submarines.

The Virginia has two mast-mounted Raytheon submarine high data rate (sub HDR) multiband satellite communications systems that allow simultaneous communication at super high frequency (SHF) and extremely high frequency (EHF).

Weapon systems


The submarine is equipped with 12 vertical missile launch tubes and four 533mm torpedo tubes. The vertical launching system has the capacity to launch 16 Tomahawk submarine-launched cruise missiles (SLCM) in a single salvo. There is capacity for up to 26 mk48 ADCAP mod 6 heavyweight torpedoes and sub harpoon anti-ship missiles to be fired from the 21in torpedo tubes. Mk60 CAPTOR mines may also be fitted.

An integral lock-out / lock-in chamber is incorporated into the hull for special operations. The chamber can host a mini-submarine, such as Northrop Grumman’s Oceanic and Naval Systems advanced SEAL delivery system (ASDS), to deliver special warfare forces such as navy sea air land (SEAL) teams or Marine reconnaissance units for counter-terrorism or localised conflict operations.



Virginia is fitted with the AN/WLY-1 acoustic countermeasures system being developed by Northrop Grumman, which provides range and bearing data, along with the mast-mounted AN/BLQ-10 electronic support measures (ESM) system from Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems.

AN/BLQ-10 provides full spectrum radar processing, automatic threat warning and situation assessment.




The Virginia Class sonar suite includes bow-mounted active and passive array, wide aperture passive array on flank, high-frequency active arrays on keel and fin, TB 16 towed array and the Lockheed Martin TB-29A thinline towed array, with the AN/BQQ-10(V4) sonar processing system. A Sperry Marine AN/BPS-16(V)4 navigation radar, operating at I-band, is fitted.

The submarines have two Kollmorgen AN/BVS-1 photonic masts, rather than optical periscopes. Sensors mounted on the non-hull-penetrating photonic mast include LLTV (low-light TV), thermal imager and laser rangefinder. The mast is the Universal Modular Mast developed by Kollmorgen and its Italian subsidiary, Calzoni.

“The Virginia Class new attack submarine is an advanced stealth multimission nuclear-powered submarine.”

The Boeing LMRS long-term mine reconnaissance system will be deployed on the Virginia Class. LMRS includes two 6m autonomous unmanned underwater vehicles, an 18m robotic recovery arm and support electronics.

Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems is supplying the lightweight, wide-aperture array (LWWAA) system based on fibre-optic arrays, instead of traditional ceramic hydrophone sensors.

LWWAA is a passive ASW sonar system which consists of three large array panels mounted on either side of the submarine’s hull.

Lockheed Martin will provide acoustic rapid commercial off-the-shelf insertion (A-RCI) hardware for the sonar system upgrade. The $25.1m contract was awarded in August 2009. Deliveries are expected to be completed by December 2011.

In January 2011, a $84m contract was awarded to Lockheed Martin for submarine sonar upgrades.



The main propulsion units are the GE pressure water reactor S9G, designed to last as long the submarine, two turbine engines with one shaft and a United Defense pump jet propulser, providing 29.84MW. The speed is over 25kt dived.

Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on 6th April 2012

5th Generation Multi-Role Stealth Fighters


ImageThe aircraft may be a technology demonstrator or a prototype for a mass production fighter aircraft. The latter is however much more likely, given that the Deputy Chief of Air Staff PLA-AF Gen. He Weirong claimed an IOC between2017 and 2019, in a November, 2009, public disclosure.

Technical Observations on the Prototype DesignImage

  1. The J-XX/J-20 is a large fighter, similar in size to an F-111. This first-of-type aircraft presents with a large dihedral canard-delta wing configuration; with a pair of outward/rearward canted all moving combined vertical/horizontal tails; and, similarly large, outward canted ventral fins/strakes which, if all moving like the tails and retained on any production version, will make for some quite advanced capability options in the areas of controllability and manoeuvrability. There is little doubt this configuration is intended to provide good sustained supersonic cruise performance with a suitable engine type, and good manoeuvre performance in transonic and supersonic regimes.
  1. The stealth shaping is without doubt considerably better than that seen in the Russian T-50 PAK-FA prototypes and, even more so, than that seen in the intended production configuration of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.
  1. The J-XX/J-20 design appears to be largely built around the stealth shaping design rules employed in the F-22A Raptor:
  1. The chined J-XX/J-20 nose section and canopy are close in appearance to the F-22, yielding similar signature performance in a mature design.Image
  1. The J-XX/J-20 trapezoidal edge aligned engine inlets are closest to the F-22, though appear to be larger and employ an F-35 style DSI (Diverterless Supersonic Inlet) design, obviously intended to improve on F-22 inlet edge signature.
  1. The J-XX/J-20 wing fuselage join, critical for beam and all aspect stealth, is in shaping and angle very similar to the F-22, and clearly superior to both the Russian T-50 PAK-FA prototypes and the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.
  1. The J-XX/J-20 flat lower fuselage is optimal for all aspect wideband stealth, and emulates the F-22 design closely.
  1. Planform alignment of the J-XX/J-20 shows exact angular alignment between canard and delta leading edges, and exact crossed (starboard to port, port to starboard) angular edge alignment between canard and delta trailing edges. Leading edge sweep is ~43°, clearly intended for efficient supersonic flight.
  1. The J-XX/J-20 nose and main undercarriage doors employ X-band optimised edge serration technology, based on F-117A and F-22 design rules.Image
  1. The aft fuselage, tailbooms, fins/strakes and axi-symmetric nozzles are not compatible with high stealth performance, but may only be stop-gap measures to expedite flight testing of a prototype.
  1. The airframe configuration and aft fuselage shape would be compatible with an F-22A style 2D TVC nozzle design, or a non-TVC rectangular nozzle designed for controlled infrared emission patterns and radio-frequency stealth.
  1. The airframe configuration is compatible with ventral and side opening internal weapon bays, and large enough to match or exceed, by some degree, the internal weapons payload of the F-22A Raptor.Image
  1. Internal fuel fraction is also likely to be high, given the fuselage configuration and large internal volume of the big delta wing. This indicates an intent to provide a sustained supersonic cruise capability, in the manner of the proposed FB-22.
  1. The PLA have not disclosed the engine type. There are claims that the Russians supplied supercruise capable 117S series engines, though, subject to the overall efficiency of the aircraft’s aerodynamics, these would likely not be sufficient to extract the full performance potential of this advanced airframe.
  1. The intended sensor suite remains unknown. China has yet to demonstrate an AESA radar, or an advanced indigenous Emitter Locating System (ELS). However, these could become available by the time this airframe enters production. Suitable Russian hardware is currently in late development and/or test.

Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on 6th April 2012

5th Generation Multi-Role Stealth FightersImage

Russia’s new fifth-generation PAK FA T-50 fighter jet performed its first demonstration flight at MAKS-2011 international air and space show in the town of Zhukovsky, near Moscow.

The official press release says that the T-50 will combine the functions of the assault aircraft and fighter jet. The aircraft is equipped with a new complex of avionics which integrates the electronic function and prospective phased-array radar. The new equipment gives the pilot an opportunity to concentrate more on the execution of combat tasks, the Rossiiskaya Gazeta wrote.


The on-board equipment allows exchanging data both with mission control centers and within the aviation groups in the air in the mode of real time. The use of composite materials and innovative technologies, the aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft and engine signature reduction measures provide the unexampled low level of radar, optic and infrared signature.

The Russian fifth Generation Aircraft can be compared to the USA’s F-22.Image

” For the time being, there is only one fifth-generation aircraft in the world – the US F-22 Raptor. The tests of the Raptor were launched in 1997. The jet was passed into service in 2005.

Unlike the F-22, which uses stealth technology, 85 percent of the surface of Russian T-50 is covered with unique nanotechnological materials that decrease both the visibility of the plane and the air drag. The technical specifications of the missiles for the jet exceed the analogues of the US aircraft. In addition, the T-50 can fire the missiles hidden in internal departments at hypersonic speed. The US fifth-generation aircraft can not do this and has to decelerate for the purpose.Image

In the meantime, the USA continues the development of a new fifth-generation aircraft – F-35. The new plane can be passed into service in the United States in 2016.

According to experts’ estimates, the value of all contracts that can be concluded during MAKS-2011 air show may exceed $10 billion. Sky Aviation of Indonesia signed the contract worth $380 million during the first day of the show to purchase 12 Sukhoi SuperJet-100. The liners will be delivered to the customer before 2015.




Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on 6th April 2012

5th Generation Multi-Role Stealth Fighters


The F-35 Lightning II joint strike fighter (JSF) is being developed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company for the US Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps and the UK Royal Navy.

The stealthy, supersonic multirole fighter was designated the F-35 Lightning II in July 2006. The JSF is being built in three variants: a conventional take-off and landing aircraft (CTOL) for the US Air Force; a carrier variant (CV) for the US Navy; and a short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft for the US Marine Corps and the Royal Navy. A 70%-90% commonality is required for all variants.Image

Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) development

The development of the centre fuselage for the first international F-35 joint strike fighter began on 30 October 2009. It is being developed by Northrop Grumman, principally for the UK. The centre fuselage including composite air inlet ducts were supplied by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI).

The F-35B short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) variant, designated BK-1 completed its assembly in November 2011. It will be delivered to the UK Ministry of Defence by 2012. The variant is being developed as part of the low-rate initial production (LRIP) 3 and is expected to produce 138 F-35Bs for the UK.

Concept demonstration phase led by Boeing and Lockheed

“The F-35 concept demonstration phase of the programme began in November 1996.”

In April 2003, JSF completed a successful preliminary design review (PDR). The critical design review (CDR) for the F-35A was completed in February 2006, for the F-35B in October 2006 and for the F-35C in June 2007. The first flight of the CTOL F-35A took place on 15 December 2006.

Low-rate initial production (LRIP) for the F-35A/B was approved in April 2007 with an order for two CTOL aircraft. An LRIP 2 contract for six CTOL aircraft was placed in July 2007. The STOVL F-35B was rolled out in December 2007 and made its first flight, a conventional take-off and landing, in June 2008. STOVL flights began in early 2009. An LRIP contract for six F-35B STOVL aircraft was placed in July 2008.

First flights of Lockheed’s F-35 variations


The F-35C took off on its first flight in November 2011. The F-35A fighter was delivered to Eglin Air Force Base in October 2011 and is under functional test; the F-35B was inaugurated in October 2011.

The first flight of the F-35 is powered by the GE Rolls-Royce F136 engine. Critical design review was completed in February 2008.

By the end of 2006, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands and the UK had signed the MoU for the F-35 Production, Sustainment and Follow-on Development (PSFD) phase.

Norway and Turkey (requirement 100 F-35A) signed in January 2007. Denmark and Italy (requirement 131 F-35A and B) signed in February 2007. In May 2008, Israel requested the sale of 25 F-35A aircraft with 50 options.

Participating nations were to sign up to the initial operation test and evaluation (IOT&E) phase by the end of February 2009. In October 2008, Italy announced that it intended not to participate in the IOT&E.

In September 2004, Lockheed Martin announced that, following concerns over the weight of the STOVL F-35B, design changes had reduced the aircraft weight by 1,225kg while increasing propulsion efficiency and reducing drag. The weight requirements will also call for a smaller internal weapons bay than on the other variants.

International orders and deliveries to forces in the UK, US and Canada


The USAF ordered 32 new F-35A aircraft in 2010. USMC (United States Marine Corps) ordered 16 F-35B aircraft and is considering more 13 more aircraft. The USN (United States Navy) ordered seven F-35Bs aircraft in 2009, and 12 F-35s were delivered to the US in 2011.

The UK ordered two F-35B’s in 2009 and one F-35C in 2010. The Netherlands ordered three F-35A aircraft, one in 2010 and two in 2011. Australia decided to purchase 14 F-35A aircraft in October 2010.

Israel ordered 20 F-35I variant aircraft in 2010 following the Israeli Government’s decision to select the F-35 as its next-generation aircraft. In June 2011, the Norwegian Parliament unanimously approved the funding of four F-35 Lightning II training jets to stabilise Norway’s future air-combat capability requirements.

Canada also announced its choice of F-35 aircraft for its future fighter requirements. The Italian Parliament has approved the purchase of 131 F-35 aircraft and construction of a final assembly facility at Cameri Air Base.

Cockpit and avionics systems from BAE Systems, Honeywell and Raytheon


L-3 Display Systems is developing the panoramic cockpit display system, which will include two 10in×8in active matrix liquid crystal displays and display management computer.

The following will also supply F-35 avionics systems:

  • BAE Systems Avionics – side stick and throttle controls
  • Vision Systems International (a partnership between Kaiser Electronics and Elbit of Israel) – advanced helmet-mounted display
  • BAE Systems Platform Solutions – alternative design helmet-mounted display, based on the binocular helmet being developed for the Eurofighter Typhoon
  • Ball Aerospace – communications, navigation and integration (CNI) integrated body antenna suite (one S-band, two UHF, two radar altimeter, three L-band antennas in each aircraft)
  • Harris Corporation – advanced avionics systems, infrastructure, image processing, digital map software, fibre optics, high-speed communications links and part of the communications, navigation and information (CNI) system
  • Honeywell – radar altimeter, inertial navigation / global positioning system (INS/GPS) and air data transducers
  • Raytheon – 24-channel GPS with digital anti-jam receiver (DAR).Image

Weapons and armaments used on Lockheed Martin’s JSF

Weapons are carried in two parallel bays located in front of the landing gear. Each weapons bay is fitted with two hardpoints for carrying a range of bombs and missiles.

Weapons to be cleared for internal carriage include: JDAM (joint direct attack munition), CBU-105 WCMD (wind-corrected munitions dispenser) for the sensor-fused weapon, JSOW (joint stand-off weapon), Paveway IV guided bombs, small diameter bomb (SDB), AIM-120C AMRAAM air-to-air missile and Brimstone anti-armour missile; for external carriage: JASSM (joint air-to-surface stand-off missile), AIM-9X Sidewinder, AIM-132 ASRAAM and Storm Shadow cruise missile.

In September 2002, General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products were selected as the gun system integrator. General Dynamics was awarded a contract for the internally mounted 25mm GAU-22/A gun system for the air force CTOL variant in November 2008. General Dynamics is developing an external gun system for the carrier and marine variants.

By Robert Nyakundi February 6th 2012



At the end of WWII, the United State Army went on a search for the German scientists behind Nazi Germany’s ambitious rocket program. American planners recognized the potential of weapons like the V-2, which had been launched from continental Europe against Allied targets. “Operation Paperclip” netted some 130 former German scientists and engineers, along with enough V-2 parts to construct some 80 complete V-2 rockets.Image

These specialists along with 500 US personnel were emplaced at Ft. Bliss, Texas and later moved to Huntsville Alabama, in an effort to shape America’s first missile program. The missile to be developed was to carry a nuclear warhead, in light of the Soviet Union’s newly-developed nuclear capabilities.

The result of their efforts was the Redstone missile. Developed in the early 50’s, Redstone was finally deployed to US Army units in June of 1958.Image

The original Pershing missile was conceived in 1957 by the Advanced Ballistic Missile Agency. That agency’s intent was to replace the aging Redstone missile. The Redstone was a major technological advancement for its era, but was large, cumbersome and not especially mobile. It also needed special fuel handling techniques for its liquid propelled rocket motors. The ABMA wanted a design which was smaller than the Redstone but with greater range and increased reliability.Image

The Pershing “land train” became the integral part of the first Pershing battalion activated in March 1963, at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. The first Pershing battalion was the 2nd Bn,44th Field Artillery, commanded by Lt. Col. Patrick W. Powers. Later, the battalion was redesignated the 1st Bn 41st FA, and later redesignated 4th Bn 41st FA . This battalion was then assigned to 7th Army in Germany, and headquartered in Schwaebisch Gmuend, Germany. The 4th Bn 41st FA was followed in the summer of 1964 by the 1st Battalion 81st Field Artillery, originally garrisoned in the little town of Wackernheim, a few clicks outside of Mainz, and then moved to Neu Ulm in 1968.

The third battalion to deploy to Europe with the Pershing system was the 3rd Bn 84th FA. in May of 1965 to Neckarsulm, Germany. All three battalions were assigned to the 56th Field Artillery Group in the command structure.Image

In 1965 Pershing units assumed an additional role in support of the nuclear deterrence mission of NATO. The three units were given the mission of Quick Reaction Alert which required a portion of each unit to maintain the highest level of combat readiness and be prepared to fulfill its wartime mission in a short time. Because of the increased requirements of this mission, the Army began an upgrade of Pershing I. At the same time, the Army authorized an increase in the number of launchers in each battalion from four to 36.

In September of 1970, the 56th Field Artillery Group became the 56th Field Artillery Brigade. The new brigade commanded the 1st Bn 41st FA, 1st Bn 81st FA, and 3rd Bn 84th FA Pershing firing battalions. The 2nd Bn 4th Infantry became part of the 56th FA Bde. The 2nd Bn, 4th Inf provided the infantry defensive support the units required. The 56th FA Brigade was supported by many other units that provided everything from Medical to Logisitcal support.

1974 saw the beginning development of a new terminal guidance system for the Pershing missile in what was to become designated Pershing II. In 1977 five Pershing II missiles were successfully fired at White Sands Missile Range.

NATO asked the United States to deploy intermediate range missiles to Europe in 1978 to counter the deployment of Soviet intermediate range, mobile SS 20 nuclear missiles, and the first Pershing II missiles arrived in the Brigade area in November 1983. By 1985 all three battalions of the 56th Brigade had achieved operational status.

In January of 1986, the 56th FA Brigade became the 56th Field Artillery Command (Pershing). The revised command structure authorized a signal battalion, the 38th Signal Battalion, to meet the communication requirements of the new command. The old 55th Maintenance Battalion became the 55th Support Battalion to reflect the additional logistic responsibilities provided by the unit. The aviation detachment became the 193rd Aviation Company, under the new command structure.

On the date of the redesignation from 56th FA Brigade to 56th FACOM, the 1st Bn 41st was redesignated 2nd Bn 9th FA, the 1st Bn 81 FA was redesignated 1st Bn 9th FA, and the 3rd Bn 84th FA was redesignated 4th Bn 9th FA. The 3rd Bn 9th FA already existed at Ft. Sill Oklahoma, so now all 4 Pershing battalions were constituted with a single artillery regiment.

%d bloggers like this: