Archive for June, 2012


As predicted by Jane’s Defence Weekly, the main feature of the T-95 is its radical configuration with the main armament in a small unmanned turret fed from a newly-designed automatic loader located below the turret (JDW 11 November 1995). Seats for the driver, gunner and commander are in a special armoured capsule, separated by an armoured bulkhead from the automatic loader and turret. This design allows the MBT’s silhouette to be reduced, making it less observable on the battlefield and enhancing crew safety. Such a configuration resolves a major dilemma concerning modern MBT design – combining adequate protection with mobility and transportability.


The T-95 MBT is armed with a 135mm gun which is believed to be of the smoothbore type and is fitted with a new fire control system (FCS). Target information is provided via optical, thermal imaging and infra-red channels. The FCS also includes a laser range finder and possibly a radar. The design relies heavily on the FCS as the crew cannot use traditional optical devices to observe the battlefield and aim the gun. The T-95 MBT is not the sole domestic new-generation MBT. The “object 640” (named Black Eagle), developed at the Omsk-based Design Bureau of Transport Machine-building was displayed at an arms exposition in Omsk, Siberia, in 1999. The vehicle features a completely new chassis and turret. Its designers chose a simpler design with the automatic loader and some ammunition is placed in a spacious bustle in the rear part of the manned turret.


The T-90S represents one of the most advanced Russian tanks from the T-series. It features an improved firepower, mobility and protection. The tank was built at Uralvagonzavod, factory located in Nizhnyi Tagil, Russia. It is worth mentioning that the T-90S officially entered the service with the Russian armed forces in 1992.

The tank is developed for a crew of 3 people, its combat weight is 46.5 tons and it features a 4-stroke V-84ms diesel engine with 849hp. The fuel capacity of this battle machine is 1,600l. The range is 650km on paved roads and 500km on unpaved. The tank reaches a speed of 65 km/h.

The information provided by the American Foreign Policy Center says that Russia is currently working on upgrading its main battle tank to the new T-95 version. The features of the new generation battle tank are specified below:


  • -Diesel-electric propulsion
  • -125mm gun
  • -360° sensors and ECM and network-capability
  • -pro-active electric reactive armor
  • -Weight: over 55 tons
  • -ceramics-n-fiber armor, which would replace the usual steel armor
  • -virtual reality for the driver and gunner
  • -2 crew members will man the tank
  • -auto loader for 3 different types of ammo.



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Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on May 12th 2012


The M1A1/2 Abrams main battle tank is manufactured by General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS). The first M1 tank was produced in 1978, the M1A1 in 1985 and the M1A2 in 1986.

The first M1 Abrams battle tanks were delivered to the US Army in 1980. In all 3,273 M1 tanks were produced for the US Army, 4,796 M1A1 tanks were built for the US Army, 221 for the US Marines and 880 co-produced with Egypt.

Approximately 77 M1A2 tanks were built for the US Army, 315 for Saudi Arabia and 218 for Kuwait.

For the M1A2 upgrade programme, more than 600 M1 Abrams tanks were upgraded to M1A2 configuration at the Lima Army tank plant between 1996 and 2001. Deliveries began in 1998.

M1A2 system enhancement package (SEP)


In February 2001, GDLS were contracted to supply 240 M1A2 tanks with a system enhancement package (SEP) by 2004. The M1A2 SEP contains an embedded version of the US Army’s Force XXI command and control architecture, new Raytheon commander’s independent thermal viewer (CITV) with second-generation thermal imager, commander’s display for digital colour terrain maps, DRS Technologies second-generation GEN II TIS thermal imaging gunner’s sight with increased range, driver’s integrated display and thermal management system.

The US Army decided to cancel future production of the M1A2 SEP from FY2004, but in June 2005 ordered the upgrade of a further 60 M1A2 tanks to the SEP configuration. A further 60 were ordered in August 2006, plus 180 in November 2006.

Under the firepower enhancement package (FEP), DRS Technologies was also awarded a contract for the GEN II TIS to upgrade US Marine Corps M1A1 tanks. GEN II TIS is based on the 480×4 SADA (standard advanced dewar assembly) detector.

The FEP also includes an eyesafe laser range finder, north-finding module and precision lightweight global positioning receiver which provide targeting solutions for the new far target locate (FTL) function. FTL gives accurate targeting data to a range of 8,000m with a CEP (circular error of probability) of less than 35m.

In November 2007, General Dynamics was awarded a contract for the upgrade of 240 M1A2 SEP version one tanks to the version two configuration which has improved sights, displays and a tank-infantry phone. The first was ready in October 2008 and the work was completed in September 2009.



In June 2004, DRS Technologies was awarded a contract to provide systems including rugged appliqué computers for the M1A2 Abrams tanks (and M2A3 Bradley fighting vehicles) as part of the US Army’s Force XXI battle command, brigade and below (FBCB2) programme.

FBCB2 is a digital battle command information system which provides enhanced interoperability and situational awareness from brigade to individual soldier that will be used in conjunction with the army’s tactical internet.

M1 Abrams armament


The main armament is the 120mm M256 smoothbore gun, developed by Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH of Germany. The 120mm gun fires the following ammunition – M865 TPCSDS-T and M831 TP-T training rounds, the M8300 HEAT-MP-T and the M829 APFSDS-T which includes a depleted uranium penetrator. Textron Systems provides the Cadillac Gage gun turret drive stabilisation system.

The commander has a 12.7mm Browning M2 machine gun and the loader has a 7.62mm M240 machine gun. A 7.62mm M240 machine gun is also mounted coaxially on the right hand side of the main armament.

Depleted uranium armour


The M1A1 tank incorporates steel-encased depleted uranium armour. Armour bulkheads separate the crew compartment from the fuel tanks.

The top panels of the tank are designed to blow outwards in the event of penetration by a HEAT projectile. The tank is protected against nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare.

One L8A1 six-barrelled smoke grenade discharger is fitted on each side of the turret. A smoke screen can also be laid by an engine-operated system.

In August 2006,GDLS was awarded a contract to produce 505 tank urban survivability kits (TUSK) for the US Army Abrams tanks.

TUSK includes add-on reactive armour tiles, loader’s armour gun shield (LAGS), tank infantry phone (TIP), Raytheon loader’s thermal weapon sight with Rockwell Collins head-mounted display and BAE Systems thermal driver’s rear-view camera (DRVC). TUSK entered service on M1A1 / M1A2 tanks in late 2007 and was deployed to Iraq.

Australian M1A1 tanks are fitted with Saab Barracuda multispectral camouflage systems which reduce the tank’s visual, radar and infra-red signature.

Fire control and observation


The commander’s station is equipped with six periscopes, providing a 360° view. The Raytheon commander’s independent thermal viewer (CITV) provides the commander with independent stabilised day and night vision with a 360° view, automatic sector scanning, automatic target cueing of the gunner’s sight and back-up fire control.

The M1A2 Abrams tank has a two-axis Raytheon gunner’s primary sight – line of sight (GPS-LOS) which increases the first round hit probability by providing faster target acquisition and improved gun pointing.

“The first M1 Abrams battle tanks were delivered to the US Army in 1980. In all 3,273 M1 tanks were produced for the US Army.”

The thermal imaging system (TIS) has magnification ×10 narrow field of view and ×3 wide field of view. The thermal image is displayed in the eyepiece of the gunner’s sight together with the range measurement from a laser range finder.

The Northrop Grumman (formerly Litton) Laser Systems eyesafe laser range finder (ELRF) has a range accuracy to within 10m and target discrimination of 20m. The gunner also has a Kollmorgen Model 939 auxiliary sight with magnification ×8 and field of view 8°.

The digital fire control computer is supplied by General Dynamics – Canada (formerly Computing Devices Canada).

The fire control computer automatically calculates the fire control solution based on – lead angle measurement, bend of the gun measured by the muzzle reference system, velocity measurement from a wind sensor on the roof of the turret and data from a pendulum static cant sensor located at the centre of the turret roof.

The operator manually inputs data on ammunition type, temperature and barometric pressure.

The driver has either three observation periscopes or two periscopes on either side and a central image intensifying periscope for night vision. The periscopes provide 120° field of view.

The DRS Technologies driver’s vision enhancer (DVE), AN/VSS-5, is based on a 328×245 element uncooled infra-red detector array, operating in the 7.5 to 13 micron waveband. A Raytheon driver’s thermal viewer, AN/VAS-3, is installed on the M1A2 Abrams tanks for Kuwait.



The M1 is equipped with a Honeywell AGT 1500 gas turbine engine. The Allison X-1100-3B transmission provides four forward and two reverse gears.

The US Army has selected Honeywell International Engines and Systems and General Electric to develop a new LV100-5 gas turbine engine for the M1A2. The new engine is lighter and smaller with rapid acceleration, quieter running and no visible exhaust.

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Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on 11th May 2012



On Tuesday, June 15 2010, Dmitry Medvedev arrived in the city of Severodvinsk and visited the nation’s largest ship-building enterprise Sevmash. The enterprise has finally finished building Russia’s unique fourth-generation submarine, which was named after the city – Severodvinsk. The president took part in the official ceremony to launch the new submarine.


The works on the submarine began in 1993. The project was suspended in 1996 and then resumed in 2000. It usually takes Russia five years to build a submarine. With Severodvinsk, though, the time was much longer – 17 years. Officials of the enterprise assured reporters that the submarine had been outfitted with state-of-the-art equipment despite the long construction process. Severodvinsk will become one of the quietest submarines in the world. The sub will accompany strategic missile carriers and defend Russia’s Arctic deposits. Severodvinsk will have up to 90 crew members.  


If the tests of Severodvinsk are successful, Russia will build six other submarines like that. The tests will begin already this summer.

Yasen class submarine (Project 885), also known as the Severodvinsk class, is a new Russian nuclear multipurpose attack submarine class. The submarine is based on the Akula-class submarine and the Alfa-class submarines and are projected to replace Russia’s older Soviet-era class attack submarines both Akula class and Oscar class.


The submarine’s technology and design is claimed to be state-of-the-art. Though smaller than the older Akula class submarines, the Yasen class will have more firepower per its complement. The submarine’s armament includes 24 cruise missiles, with several types suggested, including the 3M51 Alfa SLCM, the P-800 Oniks SLCM or the RK-55 Granat SLCM. It will also have 8 torpedo tubes as well as mines and anti-ship missiles like the RPK-7.


This class is the first Russian submarines to be equipped with spherical sonar, designated as Irytysh-Amfora. Due to the large size of this spherical array, the torpedo tubes are slanted. The submarine will have a crew of 50, suggesting a high degree of automation in the submarine’s different systems. The newest U.S. attack sub, the Virginia-class submarine, has a crew of 134 in comparison. If true, this might imply that much of the automated equipment could have been developed from the highly automated project 705 Lira, which is considered as the most automated nuclear attack submarine of all times (the entire half of the boat with reactor and propulsion was unmanned and controlled from the control room).


Length: 120 meters.

Width: 12 meters

Speed (underwater): 28-33 knots

Depth of submersion: 380-500 meters

Crew: 85

Arms: 30 torpedoes, 24 Onyx missiles (5,000 km range).




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Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on May 11th 2012

Type 093/09III Shang class is the new generation of SSN.


This sub has been under development for more than 10 years but encoutered certain technological bottlenecks in the early 90s particularly in the areas of noise reduction measures. It was reported Russian assistance was sought to resolve those critical issues in the late 90s.

However Type 093 appears to have limited Russian influences such as a double hull design and is longer than Type 091. It features a more reliable and powerful pressurized water reactor (PWR), new bow sonar and three flank sonar arrays (H/SQG-207) on each side of the hull. Image

Its noise level is further reduced by a new asymmetrical seven blade skewed propeller and anechoic tiles. The displacement of Type 093 was estimated to be 6,000 dived. It is expected to be able to fire advanced wire-guided torpedos and launch YJ-82 AshMs.

Its overall combat capability was thought to be comparable to Russian Victor III class in the late 70s, but still representing a significant technological achievement when compared with its predecessor. Image

The inital batch of 2 was built (407 & 408). The first boat was launched between 2000-01 and has been undergoing sea trial since late 2002. It was finally commissioned in late 2006.

A total number of 6-8 093 SSNs were projected. At least one 093 has been deployed to a naval base near Sanya in Hannan Island facing South China Sea. Image

A new design (Type 095/09V) has been under development, suggesting that Shang SSN may not be advanced enough to fully meet PLAN’s requirements. The latest rumor claimed that Type 095 might feature vertically launched SLCMs.



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Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on May 11th 2012

The Virginia Class new attack submarine is an advanced stealth multimission nuclear-powered submarine for deep ocean anti-submarine warfare and littoral (shallow water) operations.

Although the Seawolf submarine was developed to provide an eventual replacement for the US Navy Los Angeles Class submarines in combating the Soviet forces, the prohibitive unit cost and changing strategic requirements led to the US Navy defining a smaller new-generation attack submarine.

Viriginia class submarines


The Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, Connecticut, is the lead design authority for the Virginia Class. General Dynamics Electric Boat has built the first of the class – Virginia (SSN 774), and Northrop Grumman Newport News the second – Texas (SSN 775).

“Virginia is fitted with the AN/WLY-1 acoustic countermeasures system being developed by Northrop Grumman.”

The subsequent vessels will be Hawaii (SSN 776), New Hampshire (SSN 778), Missouri (SSN 780), Mississippi (SSN 782) and John Warner (SSN 785) being built by Electric Boat, with North Carolina (SSN 777), New Mexico (779), California (SSN 781), Minnesota (SSN 783) and North Dakota (SSN 784) being built by Newport News.

Virginia was laid down in September 1999, launched in August 2003 and commissioned in October 2004. It underwent a three-year operational evaluation before operational deployment. Texas was launched in April 2005, delivered in June 2006 and commissioned in September 2006. The keel for Hawaii was laid in August 2004; it was launched in June 2006 and commissioned in May 2007.

North Carolina was launched in May 2007, delivered in December 2007 and commissioned in May 2008. New Hampshire was launched in February 2008 and commissioned in October 2008. The keel for New Mexico was laid in April 2008.

It was launched in December 2008 and commissioned in March 2010. Missouri (SSN 780) began construction in December 2004. Her keel was laid in September 2008, launched in November 2009 and commissioned in July 2010. The keel for California (SSN-781) was laid in May 2010.

Construction of SSN 786 began in March 2011 at General Dynamics Electric Boat. The US Navy then decided to build two Virginia class submarines a year. Accordingly, $1.2bn was released to General Dynamics in April 2011, to construct the 14th Virginia-class submarine SSN-787. Construction began in September 2011, the second in that year.

Construction of SSN 788 and SSN 789 is planned to begin in 2012.

Design of NSSN Virginia Class submarines


The engineering teams and design and build teams at Electric Boat in partnership with the Naval Sea Systems Command, NAVSEA, of the US Navy have used extensive CAD/CAE simulation systems to optimise the design of the submarine.

The hull size is length 377ft by beam 34ft and the displacement is 7,300t dived, which is smaller than the more expensive Seawolf attack submarine with displacement 9,137t dived.

The hull structure contains structurally integrated enclosures, which accommodate standard 19in and 24in width equipment for ease of installation, repair and upgrade of the submarine’s systems.

The submarine is fitted with modular isolated deck structures, for example the submarine’s command centre will be installed as one single unit resting on cushioned mounting points. The submarine’s control suite is equipped with computer touch screens.

The submarine’s steering and diving control is via a four-button, two-axis joystick.

The noise level of the Virginia is equal to that of the US Navy Seawolf, SSN 21, with a lower acoustic signature than the Russian Improved Akula Class and fourth-generation attack submarines. To achieve this low acoustic signature, the Virginia incorporates newly designed anechoic coatings, isolated deck structures and a new design of propulsor.

Goodrich is supplying high-frequency sail array acoustic windows and composite sonar domes.

Command system


The command and control systems module (CCSM) has been developed by a team led by Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics & Surveillance Systems – Undersea Systems (NE&SS-US) of Manassas, Virginia. It will integrate all of the vessel’s systems – sensors, countermeasure technology and navigation and weapon control and will be based on open system architecture (OSA) with Q-70 colour common display consoles.

Weapon control is provided by Raytheon with a derivative of the CCS mk2 combat system, the AN/BYG-1 combat control system, which is also being fitted to the Australian Collins Class submarines.

The Virginia has two mast-mounted Raytheon submarine high data rate (sub HDR) multiband satellite communications systems that allow simultaneous communication at super high frequency (SHF) and extremely high frequency (EHF).

Weapon systems


The submarine is equipped with 12 vertical missile launch tubes and four 533mm torpedo tubes. The vertical launching system has the capacity to launch 16 Tomahawk submarine-launched cruise missiles (SLCM) in a single salvo. There is capacity for up to 26 mk48 ADCAP mod 6 heavyweight torpedoes and sub harpoon anti-ship missiles to be fired from the 21in torpedo tubes. Mk60 CAPTOR mines may also be fitted.

An integral lock-out / lock-in chamber is incorporated into the hull for special operations. The chamber can host a mini-submarine, such as Northrop Grumman’s Oceanic and Naval Systems advanced SEAL delivery system (ASDS), to deliver special warfare forces such as navy sea air land (SEAL) teams or Marine reconnaissance units for counter-terrorism or localised conflict operations.



Virginia is fitted with the AN/WLY-1 acoustic countermeasures system being developed by Northrop Grumman, which provides range and bearing data, along with the mast-mounted AN/BLQ-10 electronic support measures (ESM) system from Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems.

AN/BLQ-10 provides full spectrum radar processing, automatic threat warning and situation assessment.




The Virginia Class sonar suite includes bow-mounted active and passive array, wide aperture passive array on flank, high-frequency active arrays on keel and fin, TB 16 towed array and the Lockheed Martin TB-29A thinline towed array, with the AN/BQQ-10(V4) sonar processing system. A Sperry Marine AN/BPS-16(V)4 navigation radar, operating at I-band, is fitted.

The submarines have two Kollmorgen AN/BVS-1 photonic masts, rather than optical periscopes. Sensors mounted on the non-hull-penetrating photonic mast include LLTV (low-light TV), thermal imager and laser rangefinder. The mast is the Universal Modular Mast developed by Kollmorgen and its Italian subsidiary, Calzoni.

“The Virginia Class new attack submarine is an advanced stealth multimission nuclear-powered submarine.”

The Boeing LMRS long-term mine reconnaissance system will be deployed on the Virginia Class. LMRS includes two 6m autonomous unmanned underwater vehicles, an 18m robotic recovery arm and support electronics.

Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems is supplying the lightweight, wide-aperture array (LWWAA) system based on fibre-optic arrays, instead of traditional ceramic hydrophone sensors.

LWWAA is a passive ASW sonar system which consists of three large array panels mounted on either side of the submarine’s hull.

Lockheed Martin will provide acoustic rapid commercial off-the-shelf insertion (A-RCI) hardware for the sonar system upgrade. The $25.1m contract was awarded in August 2009. Deliveries are expected to be completed by December 2011.

In January 2011, a $84m contract was awarded to Lockheed Martin for submarine sonar upgrades.



The main propulsion units are the GE pressure water reactor S9G, designed to last as long the submarine, two turbine engines with one shaft and a United Defense pump jet propulser, providing 29.84MW. The speed is over 25kt dived.

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Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on 6th April 2012

5th Generation Multi-Role Stealth Fighters


ImageThe aircraft may be a technology demonstrator or a prototype for a mass production fighter aircraft. The latter is however much more likely, given that the Deputy Chief of Air Staff PLA-AF Gen. He Weirong claimed an IOC between2017 and 2019, in a November, 2009, public disclosure.

Technical Observations on the Prototype DesignImage

  1. The J-XX/J-20 is a large fighter, similar in size to an F-111. This first-of-type aircraft presents with a large dihedral canard-delta wing configuration; with a pair of outward/rearward canted all moving combined vertical/horizontal tails; and, similarly large, outward canted ventral fins/strakes which, if all moving like the tails and retained on any production version, will make for some quite advanced capability options in the areas of controllability and manoeuvrability. There is little doubt this configuration is intended to provide good sustained supersonic cruise performance with a suitable engine type, and good manoeuvre performance in transonic and supersonic regimes.
  1. The stealth shaping is without doubt considerably better than that seen in the Russian T-50 PAK-FA prototypes and, even more so, than that seen in the intended production configuration of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.
  1. The J-XX/J-20 design appears to be largely built around the stealth shaping design rules employed in the F-22A Raptor:
  1. The chined J-XX/J-20 nose section and canopy are close in appearance to the F-22, yielding similar signature performance in a mature design.Image
  1. The J-XX/J-20 trapezoidal edge aligned engine inlets are closest to the F-22, though appear to be larger and employ an F-35 style DSI (Diverterless Supersonic Inlet) design, obviously intended to improve on F-22 inlet edge signature.
  1. The J-XX/J-20 wing fuselage join, critical for beam and all aspect stealth, is in shaping and angle very similar to the F-22, and clearly superior to both the Russian T-50 PAK-FA prototypes and the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.
  1. The J-XX/J-20 flat lower fuselage is optimal for all aspect wideband stealth, and emulates the F-22 design closely.
  1. Planform alignment of the J-XX/J-20 shows exact angular alignment between canard and delta leading edges, and exact crossed (starboard to port, port to starboard) angular edge alignment between canard and delta trailing edges. Leading edge sweep is ~43°, clearly intended for efficient supersonic flight.
  1. The J-XX/J-20 nose and main undercarriage doors employ X-band optimised edge serration technology, based on F-117A and F-22 design rules.Image
  1. The aft fuselage, tailbooms, fins/strakes and axi-symmetric nozzles are not compatible with high stealth performance, but may only be stop-gap measures to expedite flight testing of a prototype.
  1. The airframe configuration and aft fuselage shape would be compatible with an F-22A style 2D TVC nozzle design, or a non-TVC rectangular nozzle designed for controlled infrared emission patterns and radio-frequency stealth.
  1. The airframe configuration is compatible with ventral and side opening internal weapon bays, and large enough to match or exceed, by some degree, the internal weapons payload of the F-22A Raptor.Image
  1. Internal fuel fraction is also likely to be high, given the fuselage configuration and large internal volume of the big delta wing. This indicates an intent to provide a sustained supersonic cruise capability, in the manner of the proposed FB-22.
  1. The PLA have not disclosed the engine type. There are claims that the Russians supplied supercruise capable 117S series engines, though, subject to the overall efficiency of the aircraft’s aerodynamics, these would likely not be sufficient to extract the full performance potential of this advanced airframe.
  1. The intended sensor suite remains unknown. China has yet to demonstrate an AESA radar, or an advanced indigenous Emitter Locating System (ELS). However, these could become available by the time this airframe enters production. Suitable Russian hardware is currently in late development and/or test.

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Compiled By Robert Nyakundi on 6th April 2012

5th Generation Multi-Role Stealth FightersImage

Russia’s new fifth-generation PAK FA T-50 fighter jet performed its first demonstration flight at MAKS-2011 international air and space show in the town of Zhukovsky, near Moscow.

The official press release says that the T-50 will combine the functions of the assault aircraft and fighter jet. The aircraft is equipped with a new complex of avionics which integrates the electronic function and prospective phased-array radar. The new equipment gives the pilot an opportunity to concentrate more on the execution of combat tasks, the Rossiiskaya Gazeta wrote.


The on-board equipment allows exchanging data both with mission control centers and within the aviation groups in the air in the mode of real time. The use of composite materials and innovative technologies, the aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft and engine signature reduction measures provide the unexampled low level of radar, optic and infrared signature.

The Russian fifth Generation Aircraft can be compared to the USA’s F-22.Image

” For the time being, there is only one fifth-generation aircraft in the world – the US F-22 Raptor. The tests of the Raptor were launched in 1997. The jet was passed into service in 2005.

Unlike the F-22, which uses stealth technology, 85 percent of the surface of Russian T-50 is covered with unique nanotechnological materials that decrease both the visibility of the plane and the air drag. The technical specifications of the missiles for the jet exceed the analogues of the US aircraft. In addition, the T-50 can fire the missiles hidden in internal departments at hypersonic speed. The US fifth-generation aircraft can not do this and has to decelerate for the purpose.Image

In the meantime, the USA continues the development of a new fifth-generation aircraft – F-35. The new plane can be passed into service in the United States in 2016.

According to experts’ estimates, the value of all contracts that can be concluded during MAKS-2011 air show may exceed $10 billion. Sky Aviation of Indonesia signed the contract worth $380 million during the first day of the show to purchase 12 Sukhoi SuperJet-100. The liners will be delivered to the customer before 2015.




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